Below is a translation of a document known as the Pan-European Manifesto, also known as Paneuropa.
This is the founding document of the Pan-European movement.
The original in German may be found here:
NB: The translation is as close to literal as possible whilst remaining intelligible. Some passages may not read fluidly in English. The intention of the author is preserved. Minor changes have been made in order to ensure some passages are intelligible. The layout – paragraphing – is as per the German source. Typographic emphasis has not been preserved.
The Pan European Manifesto
Count Richard Nikolaus von Coudenhove-Kalergi, 1923
Europe’s fateful hour strikes!
In European factories weapons are daily forged to rend European men – in European laboratories daily are brewed poisons to exterminate European women and children.
Meanwhile, Europe is playing with inconceivable levity its fate; in incomprehensible blindness it does not see what is imminent; in incomprehensible inactivity it can is without will against driving the most terrible disaster that ever a continent met.
Europe’s policy is heading for a new war. Two dozen new Alsace-Lorraine have emerged. One crisis triggers another. This can be performed daily by an accident – for example, by an attack or a revolt – the European war of destruction break out, our continent turned into a cemetery.
This war of extermination, the prepared European politics, shall in the awfulness of World War leave far behind – like this the German – French. Its element will be the air – poison the weapon – its goal the eradication of enemy nation. The main fight will be against the cities of the hinterland, against women and children. The defeated Nations are destroyed – the victorious mortally wounded from these mass murders emerge.
This threat of war means the thorough destruction of Europe, its culture and economy. Other parts of the world will take its place.
The second danger, the answer is a fragmented Europe, is: the conquest by Russia.
Russia is related to Europe, as once Macedonia to Greece.
In Philip’s throne no Greek believed in a Macedonian danger; because Macedonia was then in confusion and anarchy.
But Philip’s genius brought order out of chaos, and after 20 years, the number of peasant people of Macedonia was strong enough the fragmented civilizations of Greece prostrate.
Under the leadership of a red or white dictator could Russia, by good harvests, American and German capital
organization, again raise faster than Europe suspects. Then the fragmented and disunited small states of Europe would face some Russian world power whose area is five times as large as the entire European.
Neither the small states of Eastern Europe, Scandinavia and the Balkans nor disarmed Germany would then be able to repel the Russian rush. Rhine, Alps, Adriatic would be Europe’s borders; until this limit falls and Europe is a Western Province of Russia.
Against this danger there is only one salvation: the European union. For a united Europe, there is no Russian threat. Because it has twice as many people as Russia and a much more developed industry. So is the decision on Russian danger is not in Russia – but in Europe.
The next two decades will be the history of the spectacle of a race between the offer of unification of Europe and Russian re-construction: Russia recovering from its economic disaster before Europe agrees – as Europe must irretrievably for Russian hegemony to expire; agrees Europe before Russia is restored – as Europe is rescued from the Russian danger.
Thus the freedom of Europe is in the hands of the Europeans.
The third danger for Europe’s life is economic ruin.
Never can the shattered economy of the disunited States of Europe remain competitive against the closed economy of the United States of America. For the European interim duties impede the price of production. The parcels of European Economy are therefore condemned by the non-European economic empire in America, Britain, Russia to be crushed in the future, of East Asia as well – as shopkeepers of trusts.
Chronic crises undermined the European economy, increasing the distress, misery and inflation – until finally the bankrupt Europe economy is an American colony. This condition is the enslavement of Europe’s workforce lead by American capital, which will escape all control.
Against this danger there is only one salvation: merger of the European continent to a duty association, abolition of tariffs between European States and the creation of a pan-European economic area.
Any other path leads to ruin.
Thus, the fragmented Europe is a triple disaster contrary: the war of extermination; the subjugation by Russia; economic ruin.
The only salvation from these impending disasters: Pan Europa; the union of all democratic countries of continental Europe into an international group for a political administration union and economic purpose.
The danger of European war of extermination can only be averted by a pan-European agreement to arbitrate; the risk of Russian rule can only be averted by a pan-European defensive alliance; the risk of economic
ruin can only be averted by a pan-European Customs Union.
The arbitration agreement secures peace – the alliance secures the freedom – the Customs Union with the economy.
These three points comprise essentially the pan-European program.
Pan-Europa includes the peninsula between Russia, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea; to Iceland and the colonies the European states. The large European colony, halfway between Tripoli and Congo, Morocco and Angola Africa includes, could supply with raw materials at rational management of Europe.
Russia and England are Paneuropa neighbors. These two empires are viable even without Europe – while the remaining States of the Hemisphere are connected by their geographic location common destiny; condemned, either jointly basis to go – or resurrected together.
From many sides, the inclusion of England is required in the future Pan. This claim fails because of the construction of the British Federal Empire. Never the Dominions would tolerate that England swing to another state system into closer relationship as to them; so that is the connection of the English kingdom of Pan-Europa obsolete. The connection of the British Empire Federal Pan-Europa to lapses by the impossibility to transform Canada into a European state. The consequence of this challenge
in America would be the connection of Canada in the Pan American Union and the disintegration of the British Empire.
Thus, a merger between the Pan-Europa and Pan-British states the league is currently impossible. Good, but a global political cooperation between these two complexes possible and necessary, in the interests of peace and of progress. In no case may Pan-Europa be directed against England.
Also, the inclusion of Russia in the Pan-Europa is currently impossible. A merger between democratic states on the one hand and Soviet on the other hand is impractical. Through the rejection of democracy, Russia has voluntarily renounced the European states system.
Even against Russia Pan-Europa has no hostile attitude. The goal is to preserve the Russo – European peace,
joint disarmament, economic cooperation and respect for the mutual inner development.
Is Pan-Europa created, so it may be an equal global power with America, Britain, Russia and East Asia, a new close League of Nations, in which no part of the world need to be afraid of foreign interference. Only such a world alliance could the United States of America and the Soviet Union join.
As an independent group within the League of Nations Pan-Europa would have the ability to control its own destiny, rather than as this is happening today in Geneva to have to leave the most important European decisions Latin Americans and Asians. The American Monroe Doctrine is finally, after a hundred years, becoming a European comparable: “Europe for the Europeans!”
The pan-European program forms an indivisible whole. The path is divided – the target uniformly. Without a backup of European permanent peace is a European customs union impossible. As long as each state lives in constant fear of its neighbors, it must be prepared to produce all the necessary goods like a besieged fortress even in the event of war. This requires national industries and protective tariffs. Only a disappearance of the threat of war by compulsory arbitration requirement would open the way for European States to the reduction of customs barriers and the transition to the European Free Trade. Conversely the form of national industries and their protection by the state is a hotbed of European nationalism and a threat to the European Peace. Community of interest, however, is the surest path to political community. To support the political part of the Pan-European program of economic and vice versa.
The path to the realization of Pan-Europe is as follows:
First, grouping of European countries according to the Pan-American pattern ; this would be possible either within the League of Nations (after Germany’s accession) or by convening a pan-European conference on the pattern of the Pan-American.
Second, completion of mandatory arbitration agreements and mutual border guarantees between the states of Europe.
Third, defensive alliance for the protection of the common eastern border.
Fourth, initiation of a customs union by periodic conferences of the European states.
This program, which contains nothing impossible, should be taken without delay of any attack, Europe’s position is it wants to recognize and save the continent.
The first step to solving the European question is: whose reeling. The dangers that threaten our continent, not combated enough because they can not be detected sufficiently. The political education is the way to political rebirth.
Because ninety percent of all Europeans want from politics nothing more than the preservation of peace and freedom and the increase of prosperity. When they realize that the present policy of peace, freedom and prosperity is life-threatening and constantly threatened, they will leave this slippery slope and look for another political setting.
Since a reeling of the European question inevitably leads to their solution, it is not provided by the policy – but embezzled.
One can not blame the governments that they respond to the European question wrong, but that they do not provide the same.
While the social question with law is discussed everywhere every day: in the press and Parliament, literature and family – is the second life question simply hushed up for 300 million Europeans.
The European question is:
“Is it possible that 25 states live on the small European peninsula in international anarchy next to each other without this state ending with a terrible political, economic and cultural disaster ? ”
Anti-Europeans answer that question by saying that this previously was possible.
This response ignores the facts. For in the twentieth century, all the requirements for the previous particularism have changed Europe fundamentally.
The old Europe had world domination. Outwardly sure it could afford the luxury of internal wars without danger to life. In the twentieth century that European world domination collapsed. Asia awoke under Japanese leadership. America outperformed all European states, Russia has been solved by the introduction of the Sovietism of Europe, England has come from a major European power to head an intercontinental world power whose focus is in the Indian Ocean.
This growing organization of the non-European world into mighty empires is the growing disorganization of the European World over. Here the fragmentation has made further progress by the war. In Central Europe, two Great Powers fell to a number of smaller states to make room. So Europe is forced out of the center of the world, once the subject of world politics – it has become their object: weakened, wounded, destitute, torn.
A recovery of European world domination is impossible; but it is possible, by combining the European
States to unite this continent, as a fifth world power and save the peace, freedom and prosperity of Europeans.
The advances of technology have made a return of Europe of the last century impossible. The steel war of the past, the nations only weakened – the gas war of the future would destroy them. Also, car and Railroad, airship and radio, European distances have decreased so much that today’s Europe has become relatively smaller than the Italy of the Renaissance.
This coming together of all European countries, the community of interests, has also multiplied their opposites.
Thanks to the technology, the interests of neighboring European countries today are so entwined that they have only the choice between enmity and alliance; indifferent neighborhood has become impossible.
So the whole European question culminates in either – or:
War – or peace!
Anarchy – or organization!
Arms race – or teardown!
Competition – or cooperation!
Collapse – or merger!
No Europeans will be able to dodge this decision. Before making that decision neutrality is treason. Who is not Pan-European – is anti-European!
Who does not, sees the dangers to which the fragmented Europe politically opposed to, is blind; but who sees these dangers and still does not doing anything to avert them – is a traitor and criminal to Europe; he sacrifices his convenience or his profit, the future of his children, his nation, his culture; he is complicit in all the disasters that must befall Europe, if he holds on to its present course.
The answer to the question of Europe, the future of Europe depends. This answer is in the hands of the Europeans. We live in democratic countries and are responsible for the policies of our governments. They have no right to criticize us, to limit, but duty to participate, in shaping our political destiny.
If the peoples of Europe want – Pan-Europa will arise: you just need her voice, all candidates and parties to fail, the external program is anti-European. So every European can participate in the demise – or at the resurrection of Europe!
The majority of Europeans do not see the decision to which it revolves, and the responsibility that weighs on them. Demagogic phrases have made large masses of Europeans blind: blind to today’s chaos – oblivious to the impending disaster – Blind to the blindness of their leader.
Others are falling back into hopeless inactivity; abandonment has done to the political initiative and left lunatics, the headless race against the abyss, and pull the mindless masses along with them into perdition.
These two groups of Europeans; the blind and the lame, it is important to shake. One wants to see the others learn. It is imperative political knowledge – to arouse political will here.
Over and over again the simple truth is to be repeated: A fragmented Europe leads to war, oppression,
Misery, a united Europe to peace, freedom, prosperity!
Once this either-or in its full meaning is clear to the Europeans – then everyone likes to choose which of these two paths they want to go: the path of European anarchy – or the way the European organization; the path of Death – or the way of life.
The struggle for Pan-Europe will be tough and bitter. It requires faith, perseverance, determination. It revolves around more than about the fate of a party, a government: It revolves around to be or not of European humanity!
The leaders of the anti-Europeans are tough and devious. You will always find new keywords to combat Europe.
They are the pan-European initiative to push their enemies – to prevent the merger; they are ancillary questions pushed to the fore – to bypass the main question; they will hide behind the idea of a World Federation – to thwart Pan-Europa; they are finally trying to stamp Pan-Europa as utopia, then, with an expression heartfelt sympathy, refuse.
Let you, Europeans, not be deterred by such maneuvers! Answer them, that every people in with the Europeanization must begin, as none can begin at the other. And that it will one day be no higher honor for a European people, as: to have been first known to Pan-Europa.
Reply to those who reject Pan-Europa because of its limitations, that it can not wait for the collapse of the British or the Democratization of the Russian Empire. But that Pan-Europa is alive and organic as any political entity and that its future union with Russia or England is not impossible.
Reply to those who make a change in the current boundaries as a condition of a new Europe that a shift of these limits only by general war and ruin is possible – during their degradation in national, strategic and economic ways performs minority protection, arbitration agreement and Customs Union to peace and prosperity; that stable borders in Europe are possible – but reasonable limits impossible.
Reply to those who reject Pan-Europa on behalf of the Alliance, that only Pan-Europa is the way to replace the League of Nations and Russia and America to open the gate in the same. The fact that Europe is only a precursor, not unlike the world League and that what is desirable only to the extent possible ie policy.
Reply finally those who want to stamp Pan-Europa a utopia that no great historical event before its emergence escaped on charges of utopia. But Pan-Europa is not a utopia, because no natural law of its realization in the way: Only the will of Europeans can thwart it – only the will of the Europeans can do it!
Reply, then, those who ask you if Pan-Europa will arise – or not: “It is when you want! If you do badly,
want energetic and persevering! This is not to question whether it will be built – but, that it may arise – and so be built. Because we are not astrologers – but politicians; not prophets – but fighters “!
For this struggle for Europe, I call on all, in the possibility and the necessity of the United States of Europe, believe; but a program – for the Pan-Europa is no utopia; not a dream – but a demand!
Against this great goal disappear the contrasts of the nation, religion and party: first must be a house built before the dispute over the wallpaper begins!
So like parties, and denominations their opposites in domestic politics unsubscribe – in foreign policy they must be united in the struggle against the enemies of the European idea. Pan-Europa victory – so the web is free to solve all social and cultural issues; subject Pan-Europa – then do all the other questions of themselves, as in an old man, a mass grave, Europe will be a pile of rubble – a cemetery of a once thriving culture.
Only through unity can the Pan-Europeans of all tongues triumph over the discordant anti-Europeans in their chauvinism and fight each other.
The weapons in the struggle for Pan-Europa are: Enlightenment and Propaganda. A resolute and staunch Pan-European is considered more than a thousand weaklings and doubters. Because of the faith and advertising power of the first Pan-Europeans depends the victory of the idea.
Why throw, Europeans, the European question in all debates; at home and among friends, in clubs and assemblies, in the press and in the literature! Forcing your fellow human beings to decide for or against the European idea! Open their eyes, and tear them out of their indifference!
Make it clear to all that this is about everything. Are your opponents strong:You’re stronger! Are they smart:You’re smarter! Are they resolved: You’re more determined than them! – They refuted everywhere, shows where their path leads! Debunked, their leaders as deceiver, and blind!
Those who are anti-European from blindness – be clear eyed! They are from insanity – fight! The it for profit and ambition are – destroyed! For the sale and barter away your future and the future of your children: There are no worse Traitors and criminals more dangerous than them!
In this struggle against blindness, madness and crimes of the anti-European policy is your commitment: clarity of cognition and purity of will.
The “Pan-European Union” is the organ of the Pan-European movement. Admission is open to all, and save some of the Europe want: women and men, associations and organizations. She puts her fellow fighters on the duty to fight for Pan-Europa.
Everyone struggles with the means at his disposal. Recruit new Pan-Europeans, compel your candidates to the European Agreement program to confess! Who can speak for the propaganda talking about! Who can pay for it, pay! Who write for them can write!
Because of the way to Pan-Europa says: Propaganda, propaganda, propaganda!
What Comenius and Nietzsche dreamed – Kant conceived – Bonaparte Mazzini and have wanted – the Pan-European movement should realize: the United States of Europe!
In the struggle for Pan-Europe, the roles are distributed so that the German Pan-Europeans only against the German anti-Europeans – the French Pan-Europeans against the French anti-Europeans, fight. Any other tactic does more harm than good and increase chauvinism rather than reduce it. Only when in a nation of European ideas against the chauvinism is enforced, it has the right to wear it on the outside.
The first Pan-Europeans should be aware that they are a million army outpost in the struggle for the future decision of their continent.
The Sign of the Sun Cross, which connects the sun of the Enlightenment with the Red Cross of international humanity – will the pan-European ideas triumph over all restrictions and inhumanity chauvinistic destruction policy.
In this sign the new Europe will grow, which already confess the best Europeans.
Help, Europeans prepare this great division between future and past, between humanity and inhumanity, Enlightenment and delusion, rebirth and destruction!
Given the choice between War and peace, freedom and oppression, prosperity and ruin, Europe will in its overwhelming majority in favor of Pan-Europa decide.
He who loves his nation, must Pan-Europa want!
He who loves his family, must Pan-Europa want!
Who loves himself, must Pan-Europa want!
Only a European permanent peace for the future of European nations, families, and people.
Close to you, Europeans, the Pan-European Movement in the masses, rescues Europe and your children!